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The polyamines putrescine, spermine, and spermidine are ubiquitous polycationic mediators of cell growth and differentiation. Spermidine synthase is one of four enzymes in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway and carries out the final step of spermidine biosynthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of putrescine to spermidine using decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine as the cofactor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].

SRM (Spermidine Synthase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SRM include Sleeping Sickness and Chagas Disease. Among its related pathways are superpathway of L-citrulline metabolism and L-methionine salvage cycle III. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and spermidine synthase activity. An important paralog of this gene is SMS.

Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:

Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.

Spermidine can be used in electroporation while transferring the DNA into the cell under the electrical impulse. May be used for purification of DNA-binding proteins.

Spermidine is also used, along with calcium chloride, for precipitating DNA onto microprojectiles for bombardment with a gene gun.[17]

Spermidine has also been reported to protect the heart from aging and prolong the lifespan of mice, while in humans it was correlated with lower blood pressure.[18] It also was found to reduce the amount of aging in yeast, flies, worms, and human immune cells by inducing autophagy.[19]

Spermidine may play a role in male and female fertility.[20] Fertile men have higher spermidine levels than men who are infertile,[21] and spermidine supplementation has been shown to help maintain a healthy hormone balance and reduce oxidative stress.[22]

Spermidine is commonly used for in vitro molecular biology reactions, particularly, in vitro transcription by phage RNA polymerases,[23] in vitro transcription by human RNA polymerase II,[24] and in vitro translation.

Spermidine increases specificity and reproducibility of Taq-mediated PCR by neutralizing and stabilizing the negative charge on DNA phosphate backbone.

Spermidine is, at physiological pH, a polycationic reagent that aids in enzyme digestion by forcing apart DNA molecules.

American Heritage Dictionary Retrieved 2014-11-18.

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